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Since the early 1930s, electron microscopy has provided unprecedented access to the alien world of the extraordinarily small, revealing intricate details that are otherwise impossible to discern with conventional light microscopy. But to achieve high resolution over a large specimen area, the energy of the electron beams needs to be cranked up, which is costly and detrimental to the specimen under observation.

Among former NFL players, Black, Hawaiian, and athletes from other racial backgrounds report worse physical, mental health outcomes than white players. The widest health gaps emerged between Black and white former NFL players. Black former players reported worse health outcomes in all five health categories, compared with their white peers. Presence of health disparities among former NLF players reflects the deep and pervasive nature of systemic inequities that persist even among elite athletes, study suggests.

Researchers found that patients with COVID-19 presented with abnormal liver tests at much higher rates than suggested by earlier studies. They also discovered that higher levels of liver enzymes -- proteins released when the liver is damaged -- were associated with poorer outcomes for these patients, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death.

A new study using satellite mapping technology reveals there are nearly 20% more emperor penguin colonies in Antarctica than was previously thought. The results provide an important benchmark for monitoring the impact of environmental change on the population of this iconic bird.